Biasing (Total 10866 Papers Found)

A load-shared CMOS power amplifier (PA) for 1.8-GHz polar transmitter applications has been implemented in standard 0.18-mum CMOS technology and fully characterized to demonstrate its efficiency boosting technique in low power mode. With the aid of cascode amplifiers, the load-shared configuration achieves efficiency improvement at low supply voltage in a polar transmitter. A differential class-E amplifier with a parallel resonant circuit is analyzed and incorporated in the load-shared PA. The l ...
We investigate the effects of environmental water and oxygen on the electrical stability of p-type tin monoxide (SnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). Under negative gate bias stresses, there was a larger threshold voltage shift (ΔV<sub>th</sub>) in the devices that had been exposed to water than that for the devices that remained unexposed. However, under positive gate bias stresses, devices that had been exposed to water exhibited approximately the same ΔV<sub>th&l ...
A lateral junction type photodiode grown on a semi-insulating InP substrate was realized by 3-step OMVPE growth. The responsivity of 0.27 A/W, 3 dB bandwidth of 6 GHz and 7.5 GHz at a bias voltage of 0 V and −2 V, respectively, were obtained for the stripe width of 1.4 µm and device length of 220µm. An error free transmissions up to 6 Gbps at 0 V were confirmed. ...
We consider the problem of learning Bayes Net structures for related tasks. We present a formalism for learning related Bayes Net structures that takes advantage of the similarity between tasks by biasing toward learning similar structures for each task. Heuristic search is used to find a high scoring set of structures (one for each task), where the score for a set of structures is computed in a principled way. Experiments on synthetic problems generated from the ALARM and INSURANCE networks sho ...
The active matrix addressing operation of a dynamic optical neurochip (DONC) is reported. This DONC is an integrated circuit of InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors (MSMPDs) and GaAs FETs. The DONC was designed so that the MSMPD has a high sensitivity but the FET has almost no optical sensitivity at 915 nm. The In/sub 0.1/Ga/sub 0.9/As/GaAs superlattice structure was used in the MSMPDs to improve the sensitivity at low bias voltage. The sensitivity of MSMPD was 0.08 A/W, two orders la ...
The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approx ...
Semiconductor radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of gamma-ray, x-ray, and charged particles. In basic form, a detector is comprised of a semiconductor crystal with two or more electrodes formed on its surfaces. Besides allowing for the application of bias voltage, one or more of the electrodes on a detector also serve as readout electrode. Charge carriers drifting across the detector induce a charge signal on the electrode, which can then be measu ...
This brief presents an ultralow quiescent class-AB error amplifier (ERR AMP) of low dropout (LDO) and a slew-rate (SR) enhancement circuit to minimize compensation capacitance and speed up transient response designed in the 0.11-μm 1-poly 6-metal CMOS process. In order to increase the current capability with a low standby quiescent current under large-signal operation, the proposed scheme has a class-AB-operation operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) that acts as an ERR AMP. As a r ...
In this paper, we estimate the stiction force from electrical (current-voltage) measurements on surface micromachined polysilicon cantilever beams. A bias voltage was applied between the beam and the substrate. At the pull-in voltage, the beam collapsed to the substrate and the current rose rapidly from zero. Similarly, at the pull-out voltage during bias sweep back, the current dropped rapidly to zero when the contact between the beam and the substrate was broken. An analytic model for the stic ...
This paper demonstrates a 200mA low-dropout regulator (LDO) for portable applications. Buffer impedance attenuation is developed to realize a single-pole loop response through shunt feedback. The LDO is thus unconditionally stable without using an ESR zero and output undershoots and overshoots are minimized during load transients. Implemented in 0.35μm twin-well CMOS, the LDO only dissipates 20μA quiescent current. With a 1μF output capacitor, the maximum transient-output ...
A 1.8-V 250-mA CMOS low-dropout regulator (LDO) with a current-efficiency rail-to-rail buffer to enhance load regulation is presented. The proposed buffer provides a push-pull output stage for driving pass device and pushes the parasitic pole far beyond the unity-gain frequency to improve phase margin of the LDO loop response. The proposed LDO has been implemented in a 0.35-μm CMOS process technology and occupies area of 0.735-mm2. The measurement results show that the LDO with the propos ...
In cosmological models where local cosmic strings are formed at the end of a period of inflation, the perturbations are seeded both by the defects and by the quantum fluctuations. In a subset of these models, for example those based on D-term inflation, the amplitudes are similar. Using our recent calculations of structure formation with cosmic strings, we point out that in a flat cosmology with zero cosmological constant and 5% baryonic component, strings plus inflation fits the observational d ...
The kinetics of fuse regrowth during temperature humidity bias (THB) stresses were modeled with a power law for relative humidity (exponent /spl sim/2.3) and a power law for bias voltage (exponent /spl sim/1.7). Using these results we determined the optimal laser cut parameters to maximize product reliability. ...
We present a coupled Maxwell-Schrodinger technique with the aim to analyze the electromagnetic field dynamics together with the quantum phenomena of carbon nanotubes. The Maxwell equations, discretized by the Transmission Line Method in a three-dimensional domain, are coupled to the Schrodinger equation and simultaneously solved. We study the dynamic of a charge wavepacket along a nanotube also in the case of an applied bias voltage. ...
Motivation Considerable attention has been paid recently to improve data quality in high-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) technologies widely used in drug development and chemical toxicity research. However, several environmentally- and procedurally-induced spatial biases in experimental HTS and HCS screens decrease measurement accuracy, leading to increased numbers of false positives and false negatives in hit selection. Although effective bias correction methods and ...
Multicanonical Monte Carlo (MMC) is an adaptive importance sampling technique which employs a blind adaptation algorithm to converge to the optimal biasing distribution. In this paper, we propose an improved MMC algorithm for fast estimation of outage probabilities in Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) channels. The algorithm uses an improved estimator which can provide smooth estimates with high reliability at very low error probabilities. The proposed estimator uses moving average filtering ...
In this chapter, we provide a historical overview of research on bias in human cognition, ranging from early work in psychology through the detailed, quantitative examinations of belief revision in the 1960s, the Heuristic and Biases program initiated by Kahneman and Tversky, and bias focused research in personality and social psychology. Different notions of “bias” are identified and compared with the notion of bias in statistics, machine learning, and signal detection theory. Comparison wi ...
We propose a two-input configuration of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) for use as a programmable logic element. The MTJ intrinsically performs four logic functions - NAND, NOR, IMP, and NIMP - based on two physically independent inputs whose values are determined by magnetic field and the voltage bias. By applying the surface magnetoelectric effect, four distinct input states are determined to perform these logic operations through switching of the MTJ. With predetermined logic inputs, a singl ...
This paper exploits the benefits of the body biasing on the design of an Ultra Low Power (ULP) inductorless Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) working at 2.4GHz. A comparison of two Fully-Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator (FDSOI) technologies: STMicroelectronics 28 nm UTBB FDSOI Technology and Global Foundry 22 nm FDX® Technology is proposed. The results in terms of Gain (S21), Noise Figure (Nf), Input Matching (S11) and power consumption of the LNA for the two technologies are presented. The simulate ...
The Stark deceleration of OH radicals in both low-field-seeking and high-field-seeking levels of the rovibronic Π3/2, v = 0, J = 3/2 ground state is demonstrated using a single experimental setup. Applying alternating-gradient focusing, OH radicals in their low-field-seeking Π3/2, v = 0, J = 3/2, f state have been decelerated from 345 m/s to 239 m/s, removing 50 % of the kinetic energy using only 27 deceleration stages. The alternating-gradient decelerator allows to independently control longi ...
Traditionally, mobility of the bulk organic semiconductor materials was thought to increase with the increase of carriers' concentration. However, the experimental results show that the field effect mobility in OTFTs degenerate with the increasing gate voltage at high gate bias. Recently, even the source/drain current was found to decrease at high gate voltage bias. To interpret this phenomenon, we proposed a model based on carriers' freeze to surface charges. According to this model, the charge ...
We present new measurements of the quasar angular autocorrelation function from a sample of ∼80,000 photometrically-classified quasars taken from the First Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find a best-fit model of ω(θ) = (0.066± 0.024)θ −(0.98±0.15) for the angular correlation function, consistent with estimates of the slope from spectroscopic quasar surveys. We show that only models with little or no evolution in the clustering of quasars in comoving coordinates since a ...
Macroeconomic data for the 14 major Indian states reveal the extent of inter-state differences in the pace of economic growth in the past decade. Rising regional inequality, as measured by an increase in the Gini-coefficient from 1986-87 to 1997-98, has important implications for poverty reduction. Because of state specific characteristics, the divergent patterns of economic growth witnessed in the 1990s do not necessarily imply that the economic reforms at the national level were biased. But to ...
This paper presents a modified folded cascode error amplifier of low dropout (LDO) regulator and a slew-rate enhancement circuit to minimize compensation capacitance and improve transient response. The proposed error amplifier eliminates the tradeoffs between small and large slew-rate that is imposed by the tail-current in conventional error amplifier design. The design is implemented in a standard UMC 0.18 ìm standard CMOS process. Simulation results show that, the LDO regulator consume ...
In this paper, we review alignment techniques based on two statistical methods and Fiducial Markers. The aim of this overview is to highlight the advantages and the disadvantages of each method and to enhance the accuracy of alignment assessment. We use real biological TEM tilt series in different modes, namely scanning TEM (STEM) mode and Energy Filtered TEM (EFTEM) mode. Image registration is the process of aligning two or more images of the same scene taken at different times, from different ...
Generation±recombination noise caused by the presence of deep level traps in the depletion regions of a junction ®eld e€ect transistor (JFET) is analyzed. An analytical expression which includes all the elements that in ̄uence the process was used. A numerical procedure allowed us to calculate with high precision the magnitudes necessary to evaluate the noise spectral density. The doping pro®le and gate bias voltage were selected among all the factors involved to analyze their e€ects on th ...
A 1-D dual-electrode CMUT array for intracardiac echocardiography with a center frequency of 8 MHz has been designed and fabricated. Total transduction performance increase of 15.7dB is obtained (9dB in receive, 6.7dB in transmit) by using dual electrode configuration making CMUTs more competitive with piezoelectric transducers for a wide range of applications. This improvement is verified both with experiments and simulations. A net peak output pressure of 1.6MPa on the dual-electrode membrane ...
A gallium arsenide detector was tested with a beam of 70GeV pions at the SPS at CERN. The detector utilises a novel biasing scheme which has been shown to behave as expected. The detector has a pitch of 50µm and therefore an expected resolution of 14.5µm. The measured resolution was approximately 14µm. By using a non-linear charge division algorithm this can be increased to ≈ 12µm. Noise was the limiting factor to the resolution. This was 2000e − as opposed to the expected 360e −. This ...
Silicon pressure sensors based on micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technologies are gaining popularity for applications in bio-medical devices. In this study, a silicon piezo-resistive pressure sensor die is used in a feasibility study of developing a manometric catheter for functional swallowing disorders diagnosis. The function of a manometric catheter is to measure the peak and intrabolus pressures along the esophageal segment during the swallowing action. Previous manometric catheters ...
The design, fabrication, and experimental characteristics of InGaAs PIN diodes are presented for InP-based W-band monolithic integrated switches. The diodes with 10 /spl mu/m-diameter were used and showed a breakdown voltage of 17 V, a turn-on voltage of 0.36 V, and a switching cutoff frequency of 6.3 THz. The monolithic integrated switches employed microstrip transmission lines and backside via holes for low-inductance signal grounding. A radial stub-based design was used for on-chip biasing, a ...
Two different circuit models of RC coupled small-signal amplifiers are developed using identical power MOSFETs in Darlington pair configuration. Proposed circuits successfully eliminate the poor frequency response problem of Darlington pair amplifiers at higher frequencies. An additional biasing resistance RA, ranging from 1KΩ to 100KΩ, is to be essentially used in the proposed circuits to maintain their voltage/current amplification property. In presence of RA, proposed amplifiers crop consid ...
Alloyed ohmic contacts based on AuGeNiAg metallization with transfer resistance from ohmic metal to the 2DEG channel of less than 0.1 Ω mm have been fabricated on AlGaAs/GaAs MODFET layer structures. A sequential alloy technique was used to determine an optimum thermal alloy cycle for use on high-speed logic MODFET device layers. The resulting smooth surface morphology and extremely straight edges facilitate easy realignment for an all direct-write electron-beam lithographic process. Using ...
We present a new type of amplified chemomechanical comb-type capacitive gas sensors (ACMs) consisting of a set of flexible sense fingers with asymmetric absorbing polymer patches and side electrodes. This device combines the high sensitivity features of stress-deformed gas sensors and parametric amplification. Preliminary experiments with water and ethanol vapors indicate that the sensitivity of these devices can be increased 3–4 fold via parametric gain induced by biasing one of the side ...
A methodology is proposed to characterize TSV induced noise coupling in three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuits. Different substrate biasing schemes (such as a single substrate contact versus regularly placed substrate contacts) and TSV fabrication methods (such as via-first and via-last) are considered. A compact π model is proposed to efficiently estimate the coupling noise at a victim transistor. Each admittance within the compact model is approximated with a closed-form expression co ...
In ultrasound imaging, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology has been considered as a promising alternative for the conventional piezoelectric-based technology. Its advantages include better image quality, higher operational frequency and ease of fabrication and integration with CMOS read-out circuitry. This paper presents the design of an on-chip adaptive biasing unit which improves the sensitivity of the CMUT elements during the receive mode. This unit consists of a ...
Time domain terahertz spectroscopy is currently being widely used for various applications. A photoconductive antenna, which is also known as Auston-switch, is popular choice to produce a wideband terahertz beam for the time domain terahertz spectrometer. The device consists of two gold micro-strips deposited on GaAs (001) substrate and is designed to produce a terahertz beam over broadband spectrum with a relatively high conversion efficiency. However the photoconductive antenna often experienc ...
Visual searching is a perception task involved with visual attention, attention shift and active scan of the visual environment for a particular object or feature. The key idea of our paper is to mimic the human visual searching under the static and dynamic scenes. To build up an artificial vision system that performs the visual searching could be helpful to medical and psychological application development to human machine interaction. Recent state-of-the-art researches focus on the bottom-up a ...
Using the Y-factor measurement method, we estimated the noise figure (NF) of the high temperature superconducting bi-crystal Josephson junction mixer. The experiment was based on small pulse tube refrigerator, working at 60 K. We tested and analysed the dependence of bias voltage and local oscillation signal power with the noise figure. ...
The Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) are widely used in a variety of optical application requiring high sensitivity, such as long-distance optical communication and optical distance measurement, because the APDs can detect the low level light. APDs accompanied with the Transimpedance Amplifier (TIA) are utilized on the receiver side in the communication system. The trend of integrating the active optical components faces the challenge of integrating different voltage levels. In general, the operatio ...
Nonlinear behaviors of bulk piezoelectric devices have been widely studied. Nonlinear circuit models, such as a nonlinear version of Mason's model, have been developed to model the 2<sup>nd</sup> harmonic emissions (H2) and intermodulation response (IMD3) of piezoelectric resonators. Such resonators comprise a piezoelectric film sandwiched between two metal electrode films. The layer thicknesses and material properties, including the nonlinear materials properties, are inputs to the ...
In this paper, we discuss different modes of coupling photovoltaic detectors to a readout silicon CCD in infrared hybrid arrays, and we analyze, for different types of application, the critical parameters and the related structures. We also give experimental results for the readout of Pb<inf>0.80</inf>Sn<inf>0.20</inf>Te detectors (sensitive in the 8-12-µm range) operated at 77 K, direct-injection coupled to a linear multiplexing silicon CCD. The measured injection e ...
It is well-known that the Monte Carlo method is very successful in tackling several kinds of system simulations. It often happens that one has to deal with rare events, and the use of a variance reduction technique is almost mandatory, in order to have Monte Carlo efficient applications. The main issue associated with variance reduction techniques is related to the choice of the value of the biasing parameter. Actually, this task is typically left to the experience of the Monte Carlo user, who h ...
A waveguide-integrated Germanium avalanche photodetector with 6dB sensitivity improvement and excess noise with k<sub>eff</sub> ~ 0.1 was demonstrated while operating with 12dB gain at around 3V bias voltage. The photodetector was monolithically integrated into front-end CMOS. ...
Transistor aging effects (NBTI and PBTI) impact the reliability of SRAM in nano-scale CMOS technologies. In this research, the combined effect of NBTI and PBTI on power gated SRAM is analyzed. Optimal source biasing in the standby mode is presented as an effective method for guard-banding against the aging effects. The simulations results in a predictive 32nm technology shows maximum of 1.6% reduction in standby SNM over 5 year lifetime. For optimum operation, by decreasing the standby source bi ...
This paper is a tutorial on how the empty set can be used within set theory. We look at common misconceptions and the effect that these can have when applied to those set based models. The role of the empty set when fusing data and information modelled in sets can be confusing and incorrectly implemented. We show how the empty set has implications when decisions are made in the Transferable Belief Model (TBM), even having the ability to completely negate the open world concept of the TBM. We aim ...
High peak-to-average ratio (PAR) of OFDM signals is a major bottleneck in the implementation of power efficient transmitters since the efficiency of a linear RF power amplifier reduce drastically due to backoff requirements. In this paper, a concurrent approach that uses adaptive baseband companding/ expanding of the OFDM signal along with dynamic PA biasing to achieve significant power savings in the transmitters is proposed. While using existing channel estimation techniques to drive the dynam ...
concretely aiming at the efficient millimeter-wave power generation for monolithically integrated design, the small-signal S-parameter characterization of the impact-ionization avalanche transit-time (IMPATT) diodes was presented in this work. By combining the measured S-parameter data both of the 40 × 2 μm<sup>2</sup> IMPATT diode and different short ended coplanar waveguide (CPW) structures, a designing-by-characterizing procedure was demonstrated for a monolithic E-b ...
Partitioned cross-validation is proposed as a method for overcoming the large amounts of across sample variability to which ordinary cross-validation is subject. The price for cutting down on the sample noise is that a type of bias is introduced. A theory is presented for optimal trade-off of this variance and bias. Comparison with other bandwidth selection methods is given. ...
Intense multiphoton electron emission is observed from sharp (∼ 20 nm radius) metallic tips illuminated with weak 100 pJ, 7-fs light pulses. Local field enhancement, evidenced by concurrent nonlinear light generation, confines the emission to the tip apex. Electrons are emitted from a highly excited nonequilibrium carrier distribution, resulting in a marked change of the absolute electron flux and its dependence on optical power with the tip bias voltage. The strong optical nonlinearity of the ...